This paper presents a generalized Zaki–Moumni (ZM) model for shapememoryalloys (SMAs) [cf. Zaki, W., Moumni, Z., 2007a. A three-dimensional model of the thermomechanical behavior of shapememoryalloys. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 55, 2455–2490 accounting for thermomechanicalcoupling. To this end, the expression of the Helmholtz free energy is modified in order to derive the heat equation in accordance with the principles of thermodynamics. An algorithm is proposed to implement the coupled ZM model into a finite element code, which is then used to solve athermomechanical boundary value problem involving a superelastic SMA structure. The model is validated against experimental data available in the literature. Strain rate dependence of the mechanical pseudoelastic response is taken into account with good qualitative as well as quantitative accuracy in the case of moderate strain rates and for mechanical results in the case of high strain rates. However, only qualitative agreement is achieved for thermal results at high strain rates. It is shown that this discrepancy is mainly due to localization effects which are note taken into account in our model. Analyzing the influence of the heat sources on the material response shows that the mechanical hysteresis is mainly due to intrinsic dissipation, whereas the thermal response is governed by latent heat. In addition, the variation of the area of the hysteresis loop with respect to the strain rate is discussed. It is found that this variation is not monotonic and reaches a maximum value for a certain value of strain rate.
Morin C., Moumni Z., Zaki W.
International Journal of Plasticity, Volume 27, Issue 5, pages 748-767, ISSN 0749-6419
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Loading rate effect